SIGN:Dals Recomendăs sür el Glheþ Talossan

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Dals Recomendăs sür el Glheþ Talossan

a compilation of recommendations intended for government work etc – to be replaced by an upcoming Unified Orthography

by La Società per l'Ilesnaziun del Glheþ Naziunal

2020/XLI


NOTE: This document is a work in progress! Missing sections are marked "<TBD>".

Pronunciation

Phonological inventory

Consonants
bilabial dental alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ ŋ
plosive p b t d k ɡ
affricate ʦ ʧ ʤ
fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h
rhotic r
approximant j w
lateral ɬ l ʎ
Vowels
close mid open
front i ɪ y u ũ
center e ø ə o
back æ a ɑ

Orthography

consonant(s) sound conditions and notes
b [b]
bh [v]
c [k]
[ʧ] before ‹e› and ‹i›. If ‹ce› and ‹ci› are followed by vowels,
‹e› and ‹i› are silent; e.g. ceai [ʧai̯]. This does not apply to ‹cei› and ‹ceu›: encei [enˈʧei̯ðə]
ch [k]
c’h [x]
ç [s]
d [d]
[ð] always between two vowels or next to [r]
dd [d]
dh [ð]
dt [d] word-initially
ð [ð]
f [f]
fh [h]
g [g]
[ʤ] in the words ageu(x), legeu(x), regeu(x), regipäts(ilor), viceregeu(x)
gc [g] word-initially
gh [ɣ]
glh [ʎ]
gnh [ɲ]
h [h]
j [j]
k [k] only used in loanwords
l [l]
[ð] word-initially after a vowel
[ɬ] before an unvoiced plosive
[u̯] in the syllable coda after ‹a›, ‹ä›, ‹å›, ‹e› and ‹i›; optional in the words el(s), àl(s), del(s), dal(s)
silent in the syllable coda after ‹o› and ‹u›
lh [ʎ]
ll [l]
m [m]
mb [m] word-initially
mh [v]
n [n]
[ŋ] before [k]
nd [n] word-initially
ng [ŋg]
[ŋ] word-finally
nh [ɲ]
p [p]
ph [f]
q [kj]
qu [kw]
r [r]
[ʃ] at the end of infinitives and in their plural forms
rh [ʃ] in verbal future endings
s [s]
[z] in the endings -osă(s), -ösă(s) and -sour(s); furthermore in -sen after a vowel
sch [ʃ]
sh [ʃ]
ss [s] alternate spelling for ‹ß›, except in the words fossent, Talossa, qissen, and derivations thereof
ß [s]
t [t]
[u̯] colloquially in the ending -at(s)
tg [θ] alternate spelling for ‹þ›
th [h]
ts [ʦ]
[t] word-initially
tx [ʒ]
tz [ʦ]
v [v]
vf [v] word-initially
vh [w]
w [w] only used in loanwords
x [ks]
[ʃ] in the endings -eux and -éux
xh [ʤ]
y [j] only used in loanwords
z [z]
[ʦ] in the root scurz- and the morpheme -ziun-
þ [θ]

Consonant clusters that are not supposed to be pronounced together are broken up with an interpunct (·), or alternatively an apostrophe (’): s·chitză / s’chitzăskiʦə] (instead of *schitzăʃiʦə]).

vowel(s) sound conditions and notes
a [a]
[ə] after a stressed syllable except before a semivowel. When a feminine noun or adjective or a derivation
thereof end in an unstressed ‹a›, it can be spelled as ‹ă› or ‹â›. Spelling Talossa as Talossă or Talossâ
is possible but not recommended.
ae [ai̯]
ä [æ]
å [ɑ]
e [e]
[ə] after a stressed syllable except before a semivowel
eu [ɪu̯]
éu [eu̯]
i [i]
[i̯] before or after a vowel
silent in the ending -schti
ii [i]
ilor [ələr] unstressed word-finally
ind [ant] in the endings -ind(s) and -ind(ă)mint
[ənt] same as above but unstressed
iun [i̯ũ] in the ending -iun(s)
o [o]
oa [u̯a]
ou [u]
ö [ø]
u [u]
[u̯] before or after a vowel
ui [ui̯]
[u̯i] word-initially and after ‹c’h›, ‹g›, ‹q› and ‹s›
ü [y]
y several only used in loanwords; pronunciation depends on language of origin

Analogously to the consonants, vowel clusters that are not supposed to be pronounced together are broken up with an interpunct (·), or alternatively an apostrophe (’): co·aliziun / co’aliziun [ko.aliˈʦi̯ũ] (instead of *coaliziun [ku̯aliˈʦi̯ũ]). Alternatively, if the cluster contains ‹e› or ‹i›, it can be broken up using a trema (¨): Rëuniziun / Re·uniziun / Re’uniziun [re.uniˈʦi̯ũ] (instead of *Reuniziun [rɪu̯niˈʦi̯ũ]).

The names of the letters of the alphabet are as follows:

A a [a], B be [be], C tze [ʦe], D de [de], Ð [eð], E e [e], F ef [ef], G ge [ge], H hal [hau̯] or hasch [haʃ], I i [i], J txotă [ˈʒotə], K ka [ka], L ell [el], M em [em], N en [en], O o [o], P pe [pe], Q [ky], R er [er], S es [es], T te [te], U u [u], V ve [ve], W ve Tütsch [ve tyʧ], X üx [yks], Y üpsilon [ˈypsilon], Z tzet [ʦet], Þ þorn [θorn]

Stress

If no syllable has a stress mark, the primary stress of the word falls on the final syllable that has a vowel with an umlaut, trema or ring (ä, å, ë, ï, ö, ü) or which is followed by a consonant, after ignoring the endings -s, -en(s), -ent(s), -er(s), -esch(en), -eu(x), -ica(s), -ică(s), -ic(i), -(esch)laiset(s), -lor, -mint(s), -p(h)äts and -sqåb(s) in case it has one of those. In the context of this rule, semivocalic ‹i› and ‹u› as well as ‹e› following ‹a› are counted as consonants.

Irregular stress is marked with an accute accent (´). If the irregular stress falls on a word-final vowel, it is marked with a grave accent (`). Vowels that already have a diacritic cannot receive a stress mark (see 1.5.).

In words where the stress rule fails to determine stress, it falls on the first syllable: mici [ˈmiʧi], ricăs [ˈrikəs].

Optional final stress in third person singular future forms of verbs is not marked: amarha [aˈmaʃə ~ amaˈʃa], façarha [faˈsaʃə ~ fasaˈʃa]. If final stress is not optional, it is marked as usual: ischà [iˈʃa].

The following words can be optionally stressed on the first syllable: azul [aˈzu ~ ˈazu], acest [aˈʧest ~ ˈaʧəst], vidar [viˈðaʃ ~ ˈviðəʃ], embù [emˈbu ~ ˈembu].

Words with unpredictable pronunciations

acestilor [aˈʧeʃʧələr]
attaq [aˈtak]
bidet [biˈðe]
c’e [ʧe]
Cézembre [sei̯ˈzambrə ~ ˈsezəmbrə]
cioveci [ʧoˈvei̯ʧ]
credar [kreˈdaʃ]
da c’horsică [daˈxorsk]
doamnă [ˈdu̯anə]
e-ça qe [ˈeskjə]
fascismeu [faˈʃismɪu̯]
fascistà [faʃisˈta]
Fernaodo [ferˈnau̯ðu]
hi [i]
Hoekskåb [ˈhøkskjɑb]
ir [ˈi.əʃ]
Krakov [ˈkrakuf]
lhor [ðor]
Llimbaziuă [ʎimbaˈziu̯ə]
lu [lu]
Miadhoamnă [maˈðu̯anə]
morgun [ˈmorən]
Mximo [məˈksimo]
n’estás-c’e [nesˈtasə]
noueinçe [nu.ˈei̯ns]
noueinçelaiset(s) [nu.ˈei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
o(s) [u(ʃ)]
policier [poliˈsi̯e]
qareinçe [kaˈrei̯ns]
qareinçelaiset(s) [kaˈrei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
qator [ˈkatər ~ ˈkator]
qatorlaiset(s) [ˈkatərlai̯sət(s) ~ ˈkatorlai̯sət(s)]
renaixençă [renai̯ˈʃensə]
rönt·gen [ˈrønʧən]
seifdesch [ˈsai̯fdəʃ]
seifdeschlaiset(s) [ˈsai̯fdəʃlai̯sət(s)]
seifeinçe [sai̯ˈfei̯ns]
seifeinçelaiset(s) [sai̯ˈfei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
seifet [ˈsai̯fət]
seifetlaiset(s) [ˈsai̯fətlai̯sət(s)]
seifetziuă [sai̯feˈʦiu̯ə]
seiftéu [sai̯fˈteu̯]
seiftéă [ˈsai̯fˈte.ə]
sexeinçe [sekˈsei̯ns]
sexeinçelaiset(s) [sekˈsei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
sieu(x) [ʃu(ʃ)]
sïeu(x) [ˈsi.u(ʃ)]
simeinçe [siˈmei̯ns]
simeinçelaiset(s) [siˈmei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
so [su]
sovindă [soˈvantə] (also sovantă)
tir [ˈti.əʃ]
treinçe [trei̯ns]
treinçelaiset [ˈtrei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
upp [øp]
uppadă [øˈpaðə]
uppdateu [øpˈdatɪu̯]
Uruguay [uruˈwai̯]
vuidesch [ˈvu̯iðəʃ]
vuideschlaiset(s) [ˈvu̯iðəʃlai̯sət(s)]
vuieinçe [vu̯i.ˈei̯ns]
vuieinçelaiset(s) [vu̯i.ˈei̯nslai̯sət(s)]
vuit [vu̯it]
vuitéu [vu̯iˈteu̯]
vuitéă [vu̯iˈte.ə]
vuitlaiset(s) [ˈvu̯itlai̯sət(s)]
Zaragoză [θaraˈgoθə]

Words with unpredictable stress

äflec’h [ˈæfləx]
asündeton [aˈsyndəton]
bisquinc [ˈbiskwiŋk]
bisquinclaiset(s) [ˈbiskwiŋklai̯sət(s)]
cläxon [ˈklækson]
crüsalis [ˈkrysəlis]
Cüclades [ˈkykləðəs]
Cüclops [ˈkyklops]
dülspec’ht [ˈdylspəxt]
flügel [ˈflygeu̯]
(foto)sünþesis [(foto)ˈsynθəsis]
fönix [ˈføniks]
füslac’ht [ˈfysləxt]
gültec’h [ˈgyɬtəx]
gümnosperm [ˈgymnospərm]
hüvell [ˈhyvəl]
läxhir [ˈlæʤir]
lümagnhac’ht [ˈlyməɲəxt]
lüstic’h [ˈlystix]
müchet [ˈmykət]
müschcel [ˈmyʃʧeu̯]
osürac’h [oˈsyrəx]
prüving [ˈpryviŋ]
qator [ˈkatər ~ ˈkator]
qatorlaiset(s) [ˈkatərlai̯sət(s) ~ ˈkatorlai̯sət(s)]
rasüc’htec’h [raˈsyxtəx]
rönt·gen [ˈrønʧən]
rücfüring [rykˈfyriŋ]
sändwitsch [ˈsændwiʧ]
säpar [ˈsæpəʃ]
sätin [ˈsætin]
sch’ändå [ˈʃændɑ]
seifet [ˈsai̯fət]
seifetlaiset(s) [ˈsai̯fətlai̯sət(s)]
süsädmin [syˈsædmin]
trümac’h [ˈtryməx]
tüpin [ˈtypin]
undaveint [ˈundəvei̯nt]
undaveintlaiset(s) [ˈundəvei̯ntlai̯sət(s)]
üntrac’ht [ˈyntrəxt]
üpsilon [ˈypsilon]
vrüsanen [ˈvrysənən]
xülofon [ˈksylofon]
zespäts [zesˈpæʦ]
þusund [ˈθusund]
þusundlaiset(s) [ˈθusundlai̯sət(s)]

Nouns

Definite articles

singular plural
masculine el, l’[* 1] els
feminine la, l’[* 1] las
  1. 1.0 1.1 Elided form.
singular plural
masculine feminine masculine feminine
à àl àls
da del dal dels, dallas[* 1] dals, dallas[* 1]
  1. 1.0 1.1 Rare.

Elided forms of da double as partitive articles.

Indefinite articles

singular plural
masculine ün 'n[* 1] dels dallas[* 2]
feminine ünă dals
  1. Colloquial form.
  2. Rare except with year numbers.
masculine singular feminine singular
à à’iens à’iensă
c’e [ʧe] c’e’n [ʧen]
come com’iens com’iensă
contra contr’iens contr’iensă
da d’iens d’iensă
intra intr’iens intr’iensă
ja ja’iens ja’iensă
per pr’iens pr’iensă

Regular pluralisation

  • First declension: nouns that lack any characteristic ending receive -s.
    • nouns ending in a stressed vowel receive -ns. If the noun ends in a stressed [a], one can alternatively add -es.
    • the final consonant -l […u̯ ~ (silent)] and the ending -il […iu̯] become i before -s is added.
    • the endings -ar and -an become -ae before -s is added.
    • nouns ending in the sounds [s z ʃ ʒ ʃt ʧ ʤ ʎ ɲ θ] receive -en.
    • Greek nouns ending in -sis change it to -ses.
    • Letters of the Latin or Greek alphabets, solfege tones and the words ca and pru receive -s.
  • Second declension: nouns ending in -eu or -éu receive -x.
  • Third declension: nouns ending in -äCs or -äCCs, where C stands for any consonant, receive -ilor.
  • Fourth declension: nouns ending in -ic, -íc or -ïc […ik] receive -i.
    • nouns ending in -ic […i̯k] can receive either -i or -s.
  • Fifth declension: nouns ending in -x, -sc or -scu change it to -schti.

A pluralised noun retains the stress of the singular form, except in the following cases:

  • A noun that is stressed on the antepenult and receives -en in the plural moves the stress to the penult in the plural.
  • A noun that ends in an unstressed vowel followed by -s moves the stress to the penult in the plural.
  • All third declension nouns move the stress to the antepenult in the plural.

For the pluralisation of compound nouns, see 7.2.

Irregular pluralisation

singular plural
el caciun els cician
el cióvec els cioveci [ʧoˈvei̯ʧ]
el garda els garxhi
la fru las frulor
el fungu els funxhi
el luïç las luïçă
el po els pocs
la politică las politicăs, els politici
el viens els viensas

Usage

Noun gender

There are two noun genders, masculine and feminine.

The gender of a noun is mostly predictable. In general, nouns ending in , stressed [a], -iun or stressed [u] are feminine, while all other nouns are masculine. Notable exceptions are words ending in -istà, which are masculine by default and the word Talossa, which is feminine. Since there are many additional exceptions to the rule above, such as garziun “boy” which is masculine or säp “knowledge” which may be masculine or feminine, the gender of a noun is always listed in the dictionary.

Furthermore, nouns that describe animals, professions, conditions or similar things may deviate from their default gender listed in the dictionary. For example, the noun cadì “judge”, which is masculine by default, can become feminine when the person is feminine. In that case, the noun undergoes the same gender inflections as adjectives when applicable (see 3.3.).

el Meschic’ha “the messiah”
la Meschic’hă “the [female] messiah”
el destinat “the addressee”
la destinadă “the [female] addressee”

The following nouns do not undergo any gender-related changes: acleat, bat, cascacat, cat, ovat, paßerat, pesc, pirat, pocat, soldat, squilat, stat, trinidat, uómbat.

When a feminine-by-default noun changes its gender to masculine, the only change that occurs is that word-final changes to -a, if applicable.

la doctoră “the nurse”
el doctora “the [male] nurse”

When the gender of the animal or person is either unknown or irrelevant, the default gender from the dictionary is used.

Noun number

<TBD>

Noun introduction

Nouns, except proper nouns, Talossa or names of Talossan provinces, require some sort of “introduction word” that precedes it, in form of an article, adjective, preposition, or apposite pronoun.

The most common way of introducing is by using an article, be it definite, indefinite, partitive or the phrase toct i. As a consequence, abstract and uncountable nouns require an article in Talossan even when they do not in English.

toct i pätsilor “all the countries”
la perziun “the person”
dal apă “water”
la vidă “life”

Adjectives that count as valid introduction words are demonstratives (acest, această, acestilor), possessive determiners (va, tu, etc.) and cardinal and indefinite numerals (viens, doua, cadascu, etc.).

ár päts “our country”
această perziun “this person”
cadascu vidă “each life”

Note however that all other categories of adjectives not explicitly mentioned above are not sufficient to introduce a noun.

el noveu bioscop “the new movie”
la qareinçelaiset ediziun “the fortieth edition”

Instead of an article, abstract nouns as well as language names can also be introduced with a preposition, though using a preposition and an article is also correct.

sanc (del) gräts “without mercy”
in (l’)Anglească “in English”

This does not apply to other types of nouns, however.

in el päts “in the country”
sanc la perziun “without the person”

Finally, an apposite personal pronoun can be used to introduce a noun. This form of noun introduction only occurs rarely though.

noi Talossaes “we Talossans”

Adjectives and adverbs

Regular gender inflection

  • Adjectives ending in -eu or -éu change them to and -éă respectively in their feminine form.
  • Adjectives ending in -ceu […ʧɪu̯] or -cheu […kɪu̯] change them to -ciă […ʧə] and -că […kə] respectively in their feminine form.
  • Adjectives ending in -at change it to -adă in their feminine form.
  • Adjectives ending in -esc change it to -ească in their feminine form.
  • Adjectives ending in -a change it to in their feminine form.
  • In all other cases, the masculine and feminine forms are identical.

Regular pluralisation

The pluralisation rules for adjectives are identical to those for nouns (see 2.3.).

Irregular adjective forms

singular plural
masculine feminine masculine feminine
aucün
acest această acestilor [aˈʧeʃʧələr]
acü acütă acüns acütăs
bel belă bels belăs
ben bună bens bunăs
bléu blúă bléux blúăs
cacsa cacsă cacsa cacsă
cadascu
çaobén
embù
Européu Europeiă Européux Europeiăs
fiir fiis
ingen
negreu neagră negreux neagrăs
nigüt nigüdă nigüts nigüdăs
noveu noua noveux nouăs
nüdă nüns nüdăs
po pocs
political politici, politicais
próxim próximă próxins próximăs
prüm prümă prüms prümăs
quálsevol quáisevois
qetevri
qissen
quist quisten
timit timidă timits timidăs
vell veă vells veăs
viens viensă dels dals

The adjectives Belxhíc, evanxhelíc, matxentíc, öcümeníc and püblíc shift the stress to the antepenult in the plural.

Comparatives and superlatives

masculine feminine
more
most el pü la phü
masculine feminine
less mïus
least el mïus la mhïus
masculine feminine
better miglhor
best el miglhor la m(h)iglhor
masculine feminine
worse pior
worst el pior la p(h)ior

Adverbialisation of adjectives

To adverbialise an adjective, add the ending -mint to its feminine form.

Usage

Adjectives usually follow the noun they describe. Exceptions to this are demonstratives (acest, această, acestilor), which always precede the noun (see 2.5.), the adjective steçéu, which always follows it. They also always carry the same number and gender information as the noun they describe.

Short adjectives that describe size, quality or quantity are preferably precede the noun they describe. Adjectives that describe figurative rather than literal properties can precede the noun they describe on an optional basis.

The adjectives mismeu and propreu have different meanings depending on whether they precede or follow the noun.

el mismeu cudesch “the same book”
el cudesch mismeu “the book itself”
va propră casă “my own house”
va casă propră “my proper house”

Comparatives and superlatives are formed by placing the corresponding comparative phrase (see 3.4.) directly before the adjective, regardless of whether it precedes or follows the noun. If two articles end up adjacent, one of them is dropped.

el cudesch pü intzereçind “the more interesting book”
el cudesch el pü intzereçind “the most interesting book”
el pü ben cudesch “the better/best book”

With ben “good” and mal “bad”, one can use the irregular comparatives (miglhor, pior) or the regular ones (pü ben, pü mal), but not both together (see 3.4.).

el pü ben cudesch “the better/best book”
el miglhor cudesch “the better/best book”

In comparisons, the English word “than” corresponds to Talossan qe. The phrase “as … as” corresponds to så … come or så … qe.

Éu sint miglhor qe tu. “I am better than you.”
Éu sint så ben come tu. “I am as good as you.”
Éu sint så ben qe tu. “I am as good as you.”

Adjectives can be used as nouns in their own right. Adjectives that are used as nouns are often translated with the word “one” in English.

la ben perziun “the good person”
la ben “the good one”

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

subject object prepositional
after consonant after vowel after
first person singular éu me, m’[* 1] me mhe me
plural noi noi, üns nhoi, üns noi
second person singular tu te, t’[* 1] dtu thu tu
plural voi vhoi voi
third person singular o [u] lo [lu], l’[* 1] lo [lu] lo [ðu] lo [ðu]
a la, l’[* 1] eia la
ça en ça
plural os [uʃ] lor lhor [ðor] lor
as
ça en ça
impersonal / reflexive si se, s’[* 1] so [su]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Elided form.

Possessive forms

Possessive determiners
singular plural
masculine feminine
first person singular va, v’ [* 1] vaes [* 2]
plural ár, noastra ár, noastră ár, noschtri
second person singular tu tuns [* 2]
plural voastra voastră voschtri
third person singular sieu [ʃu] sieux [ʃuʃ] [* 2]
ça ça’ns [* 2]
plural lor lors [* 2]
ça ça’ns [* 2]
impersonal / reflexive sieu [ʃu] sieux [ʃuʃ] [* 2]
  1. Elided form.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Alternatively one can use the singular form.
Possessive pronoun
singular plural
masculine feminine masculine feminine
first person singular el méu la mhïă els méux las mïăs
plural el noastra la noastră els noschtri las noschtri
second person singular el tu la thu els tuns las tuns
plural el voastra la voastră els voschtri las voschtri
third person singular el sïeu [ˈsi.u] la tsïă els sïeux [ˈsi.uʃ] las sïăs
el ça’n la ça’n els ça’ns las ça’ns
plural el lor la lhor [ðor] els lors las lors
el ça’n la ça’n els ça’ns las ça’ns
impersonal / reflexive el sïeu [ˈsi.u] la tsïă els sïeux [ˈsi.uʃ] las sïăs

Usage

<TBD>

Verbs

Regular verbs

infinitive amar[* 1]
present éu am(éu)[* 2] noi ament (amameux[* 3])
tu amás voi ametz
o/a/ça ama os/as/ça ament
past éu ameveu noi amevent (amevameux[* 3])
tu amevás voi amevetz
o/a/ça ameva[* 4] os/as/ça amevent
future éu amarhéu noi amarhent (amarhameux[* 3])
tu amarhás voi amarhetz
o/a/ça amarha[* 5] os/as/ça amarhent
subjunctive éu amadréu noi amadrent (amadrameux[* 3])
tu amadrás voi amadretz
o/a/ça amadra os/as/ça amadrent
imperative ¡ama![* 6] ¡ametz![* 6]
present participle amind aminds
past participle amat, amadă, amescu[* 7] amats, amadăs, ameschti[* 7]
perfect aspect tir [ˈti.əʃ] + past participle singular
imperfect aspect estar à + infinitive
prospective aspect ir [ˈi.əʃ] + infinitive / façar à + infinitive
retrospective aspect viénar à + infinitive
manitive aspect viénar da + infinitive
continuative aspect restar + present participle singular
passive estar + past participle
  1. Verbs that have irregular stress in the infinitive do not generally retain it in any other verb form. (see 5.4.1)
  2. The ending -éu is obligatory if the verb stem ends in a semivowel or an awkward consonant cluster
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 -ent forms are recommended, but -ameux forms are tolerated and perfectly acceptable.
  4. The ending -eva elides with the indefinite article into -ev’iens(ă).
  5. The third person singular future form can be optionally stressed on the final syllable.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Both forms can be used in the singular and the plural.
  7. 7.0 7.1 The endings -escu and -eschti are independent of gender.

Irregular verbs

infinitive creatar
present éu creat(éu) noi creatent (creatameux)
tu creatás voi createtz
o/a/ça creata os/as/ça creatent
past éu creavéu noi creavent (creavameux)
tu creavás voi creavetz
o/a/ça creava os/as/ça creavent
future éu creatarhéu noi creatarhent (creatarhameux)
tu creatarhás voi creatarhetz
o/a/ça creatarha os/as/ça creatarhent
subjunctive éu creatadréu noi creatadrent (creatadrameux)
tu creatadrás voi creatadretz
o/a/ça creatadra os/as/ça creatadrent
imperative ¡creata! ¡createtz!
present participle creatind creatinds
past participle creat, creadă creats, creadăs
infinitive credar [kreˈdaʃ]
present éu créu noi credent (credameux)
tu creas voi credetz
o/a/ça crea os/as/ça credent
past éu crevéu noi crevent (crevameux)
tu crevás voi crevetz
o/a/ça creva os/as/ça crevent
future éu credarhéu noi credarhent (credarhameux)
tu credarhás voi credarhetz
o/a/ça credarha os/as/ça credarhent
subjunctive éu creadréu noi creadrent (creadrameux)
tu creadrás voi creadretz
o/a/ça creadra os/as/ça creadrent
imperative ¡creda! ¡credetz!
present participle credent credents
past participle creut, credescu creuts, credeschti
infinitive estar
present éu sint noi sint (estameux)
tu isch voi estetz
o/a/ça isch, c’e [ʧe][* 1] os/as/ça sint
past éu füt, esteveu noi füvent, estevent (estevameux)
tu füt, estevás voi füvent, estevetz
o/a/ça füt, (c’)esteva[* 1] os/as/ça füvent, (c’)esteva[* 1]
future éu seréu noi serent (serameux)
tu serás voi seretz
o/a/ça serà os/as/ça serent
subjunctive éu estadréu noi estadrent (estadrameux)
tu estadrás voi estadretz
o/a/ça (c’)estadra[* 1] os/as/ça (c’)estadrent[* 1]
imperative ¡esta! ¡estetz!
present participle estind estinds
past participle estescu esteschti
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 The forms with c’ [ʧ…] are never used when the subject is a human being.
infinitive façar
present éu faç(éu) noi façent (façameux)
tu façás voi façetz
o/a/ça fäts os/as/ça façent
past éu façeveu noi façevent (façevameux)
tu façevás voi façevetz
o/a/ça façeva os/as/ça façevent
future éu façarhéu noi façarhent (façarhameux)
tu façarhás voi façarhetz
o/a/ça façarha os/as/ça façarhent
subjunctive éu façadréu noi façadrent (façadrameux)
tu façadrás voi façadretz
o/a/ça façadra os/as/ça façadrent
imperative ¡fäts! ¡facetz!
present participle façind façinds
past participle façat, façadă, fäts, facescu façats, façadăs, fätsilor, faceschi
infinitive fóstar
present éu fost noi fossent (fostameux)
tu fost voi fossent
o/a/ça fost os/as/ça fossent
past éu fosteveu noi fostevent (fostevameux)
tu fostevás voi fostevetz
o/a/ça fosteva os/as/ça fostevent
future éu fostarhéu noi fostarhent (fostarhameux)
tu fostarhás voi fostarhetz
o/a/ça fostarha os/as/ça fostarhent
subjunctive éu fostadréu noi fostadrent (fostadrameux)
tu fostadrás voi fostadretz
o/a/ça fostadra os/as/ça fostadrent
imperative ¡fosta! ¡fostetz!
present participle fostind fostinds
past participle fostat, fostadă, fostescu fostats, fostadăs, fosteschti
infinitive ir [ˈi.əʃ]
present éu véu noi viennent (vameux)
tu vas voi vetz
o/a/ça va os/as/ça viennent
past éu veneveu noi venevent (venevameux)
tu venevás voi venevetz
o/a/ça veneva os/as/ça venevent
future éu ischéu noi ischent (ischameux)
tu ischás voi ischetz
o/a/ça ischà os/as/ça ischent
subjunctive éu venadréu noi venadrent (venadrameux)
tu venadrás voi venadretz
o/a/ça venadra os/as/ça venadrent
imperative ¡va!, ¡iöt! ¡vetz!, ¡iöt!
present participle viénind, vand viéninds, vands
past participle venescu veneschti
infinitive moártar
present éu moar(éu) noi moarent (mortameux)
tu mortás voi mortetz
o/a/ça moara os/as/ça moarent
past éu morteveu noi mortevent (mortevameux)
tu mortevás voi mortevetz
o/a/ça morteva os/as/ça mortevent
future éu moartarhéu noi moartarhent (moartarhameux)
tu moartarhás voi moartarhetz
o/a/ça moartarha os/as/ça moartarhent
subjunctive éu mortadréu noi mortadrent (mortadrameux)
tu mortadrás voi mortdretz
o/a/ça mortadra os/as/ça mortadrent
imperative ¡morta! ¡mortetz!
present participle moarind moarinds
past participle moart, mortescu moarts, morteschti
infinitive pevar
present éu put noi povent (pevameux)
tu put voi pevetz
o/a/ça put os/as/ça povent
past éu pognheveu noi pognhevent (pognhevameux)
tu pognhevás voi pognhevetz
o/a/ça pognheva os/as/ça pognhevent
future éu pevarhéu noi pevarhent (pevarhameux)
tu pevarhás voi pevarhetz
o/a/ça pevarha os/as/ça pevarhent
subjunctive éu povadréu noi povadrent (povadrameux)
tu povadrás voi povadretz
o/a/ça povadra os/as/ça povadrent
imperative ¡pevetz! ¡pevetz!
present participle povind povinds
past participle pevat, pevadă, pevescu pevats, pevadăs, peveschti
infinitive säpar [ˈsæpəʃ]
present éu säp noi säpent (säpameux)
tu säps voi säpetz
o/a/ça säp os/as/ça säpent
past éu säpeveu noi säpevent (säpevameux)
tu säpevás voi säpevetz
o/a/ça säpeva os/as/ça säpevent
future éu säperéu noi säperent (säperameux)
tu säperás voi säperetz
o/a/ça säperà os/as/ça säperent
subjunctive éu säpadréu noi säpadrent (säpadrameux)
tu säpadrás voi säpadretz
o/a/ça säpadra os/as/ça säpadrent
imperative ¡säp! ¡säpetz!
present participle säpind säpinds
past participle säpescu säpeschti
infinitive scríuar
present éu scrïu noi scrivent (scrivameux)
tu scriuas voi scriitz
o/a/ça scriua os/as/ça scrivent
past éu scriveveu noi scrivevent (scrivevameux)
tu scrivevás voi scrivevetz
o/a/ça scriveva os/as/ça scrivevent
future éu scrivarhéu noi scrivarhent (scrivarhameux)
tu scrivarhás voi scrivarhetz
o/a/ça scrivarha os/as/ça scrivarhent
subjunctive éu scrivadréu noi scrivadrent (scrivadrameux)
tu scrivadrás voi scrivadretz
o/a/ça scrivadra os/as/ça scrivadrent
imperative ¡scriitz! ¡scriitz!
present participle scríind scríinds
past participle scriut scriuts
infinitive star
present éu stéu noi stameux
tu stas voi stetz
o/a/ça sta os/as/ça stint
past éu steveu noi stevent (stevameux)
tu stevás voi stevetz
o/a/ça steva os/as/ça stevent
future éu starhéu noi starhent (starhameux)
tu starhás voi starhetz
o/a/ça starha os/as/ça starhent
subjunctive éu stadréu noi stadrent (stadrameux)
tu stadrás voi stadretz
o/a/ça stadra os/as/ça stadrent
imperative ¡sta! ¡stetz!
present participle stanind staninds
past participle stanescu staneschti
infinitive tir [ˈti.əʃ]
present éu téu noi tiennent (tenemeux)
tu tent voi tenetz
o/a/ça tent os/as/ça tiennent
past éu tignhoveu noi tignhovent (tignhovameux)
tu tignhovás voi tignhovetz
o/a/ça tignhova os/as/ça tignhovent
future éu tischéu noi tischent (tischameux)
tu tischás voi tischetz
o/a/ça tischa os/as/ça tischent
subjunctive éu tenadréu noi tenadrent (tenadrameux)
tu tenadrás voi tenadretz
o/a/ça tenadra os/as/ça tenadrent
imperative ¡tent! ¡tischetz!
present participle tischind tischinds
past participle tenescu teneschti
infinitive velar
present éu volt noi volent (velameux)
tu volt voi veletz
o/a/ça volt os/as/ça volent
past éu veleveu noi velevent (velevameux)
tu velevás voi velevetz
o/a/ça veleva os/as/ça velevent
future éu velarhéu noi velarhent (velarhameux)
tu velarhás voi velarhetz
o/a/ça velarha os/as/ça velarhent
subjunctive éu veladréu noi veladrent (veladrameux)
tu veladrás voi veladretz
o/a/ça veladra os/as/ça veladrent
imperative ¡volt! ¡volt!
present participle velind velinds
past participle velescu veleschti
infinitive vidar
present éu vïu, videu noi vident (vidameux)
tu vïas voi videtz
o/a/ça vïa os/as/ça vident
past éu videveu noi videvent (videvameux)
tu videvás voi videvetz
o/a/ça videva os/as/ça videvent
future éu vidarhéu noi vidarhent (vidarhameux)
tu vidarhás voi vidarhetz
o/a/ça vidarha os/as/ça vidarhent
subjunctive éu vidadréu noi vidadrent (vidadrameux)
tu vidadrás voi vidadretz
o/a/ça vidadra os/as/ça vidadrent
imperative ¡vida! ¡videtz!
present participle vidind vidinds
past participle víut, videscu víuts, videschti
infinitive viénar
present éu viens noi viennent (vameux)
tu viens voi vetz
o/a/ça vient os/as/ça viennent
past éu veneveu noi venevent (venevameux)
tu venevás voi venevetz
o/a/ça veneva os/as/ça venevent
future éu venarhéu noi venarhent (venarhameux)
tu venarhás voi venarhetz
o/a/ça venarha os/as/ça venarhent
subjunctive éu venadréu noi venadrent (venadrameux)
tu venadrás voi venadretz
o/a/ça venadra os/as/ça venadrent
imperative ¡vena! ¡venetz!
present participle venind veninds
past participle viénat, viénadă, venescu viénats, viénadăs, veneschti
infinitive zirar
present éu zïu noi zirent (zirameux)
tu zïas voi ziretz
o/a/ça zïa os/as/ça zirent
past éu zireveu noi zirevent (zirevameux)
tu zirevás voi zirevetz
o/a/ça zireva os/as/ça zirevent
future éu zirarhéu noi zirarhent (zirarhameux)
tu zirarhás voi zirarhetz
o/a/ça zirarha os/as/ça zirarhent
subjunctive éu ziradréu noi ziradrent (ziradrameux)
tu ziradrás voi ziradretz
o/a/ça ziradra os/as/ça ziradrent
imperative ¡na![* 1], ¡zira! ¡ditz![* 1], ¡ziretz!
present participle zirind zirinds
past participle zirat, ziradă, zirescu zirats, ziradăs, zireschti
  1. 1.0 1.1 Compound verbs of zirar only have regular imperative forms.
infinitive zonar
present éu zon(éu) noi zonent (zonameux)
tu zonás voi zonetz
o/a/ça zona os/as/ça zonent
past éu zoneveu noi zonevent (zonevameux)
tu zonevás voi zonevetz
o/a/ça zoneva os/as/ça zonevent
future éu zonarhéu noi zonarhent (zonarhameux)
tu zonarhás voi zonarhetz
o/a/ça zonarha os/as/ça zonarhent
subjunctive éu zonadréu noi zonadrent (zonadrameux)
tu zonadrás voi zonadretz
o/a/ça zonadra os/as/ça zonadrent
imperative ¡da![* 1], ¡zona! ¡da![* 1], ¡zonetz!
present participle zonind zoninds
past participle zonat, zonadă, zonescu zonats, zonadăs, zoneschti
  1. 1.0 1.1 Compound verbs of zonar only have regular imperative forms.

Verbs in inverted word order

In inverted word order, the verb ending elides with the personal pronoun:

  • éu elides with the endings -éu and -eu to -’éu.
  • tu elides with the ending -ás to -ás’t.
  • o [u] and a combine with the ending -a to -a-t-o […aˈtu] and -a-t-a […aˈta] respectively and with to to -à-t-o […aˈtu] and -à-t-a […aˈta] respectively.
  • In all other cases, the pronoun is hyphenated to the end of the verb without further change.

In any case, the added pronoun receives the stress of the word.

Usage

Verb stem

The verb stem is derived from the infinitive is used to form all other forms of regular verbs. Furthermore, it is used in word derivations (see 7.1.2).

It is formed by removing the -ar ending, e.g. amar “to love” > am-. If the infinitive is stressmarked, it is also removed, e.g. cognhéçar “to know (people)” > cognheç-. However, if the stress mark is not just used to mark irregular stress but also to break up a diphthong, a different set of rules applies: verbs ending in -íar and -úar drop the stress mark without replacement but retain the hiatus in the first person plural and third person singular and plural forms of the present tense and the singular imperative: in these forms, the stem ends in and respectively, e.g. xhúar “to play” > xhúa, xhúent, ¡xhúa!, but xhuetz. In all other cases, the hiatus is kept in the stem and no other change occurs, e.g. aílar “to ail” > aïl-.

Verbs ending in -ear have an irregularly stressed verb stem in the first and third person plural form of the present tense, e.g. agrear “to agree” > agréent. All other forms use the regular unstressmarked verb stem.

Verbs ending in -icar which are more than two syllables long have an irregularly stressed verb stem in the third person singular form of the present tense and the singular imperative, e.g. identificar “to identify” > identifíca, ¡identifíca!, but cicar “to arrive” > cica, ¡cica!. All other forms use the regular unstressmarked verb stem.

The following verbs have irregular verb stems: ir [ˈi.əʃ] > ven-, moártar > mort-, pevar > pov-, scríuar > scriv-, tir [ˈti.əʃ] > tisch-, viénar > ven-.

Use of the infinitive

<TBD>

Use of tenses

<TBD>

Use of aspects

<TBD>

Prefixed verbs

<TBD>

Numerals

Cardinal numbers

units teens tens
masculine feminine
0 nul bisquinc [ˈbiskwiŋk] ---
1 viens viensă ündesch
2 doua două dudesch vaintsch, veint
3 tres treidesch treinçe [trei̯ns]
4 qator [ˈkatər ~ ˈkator] tordesch qareinçe [kaˈrei̯ns]
5 simca simcă quintesch simeinçe [siˈmei̯ns]
6 sex sedesch sexeinçe [sekˈsei̯ns]
7 seifet [ˈsai̯fət] seifdesch [ˈsai̯fdəʃ] seifeinçe [sai̯ˈfei̯ns]
8 vuit [vu̯it] vuidesch [ˈvu̯iðəʃ] vuieinçe [vu̯i.ˈei̯ns]
9 noua nouă undaveint [ˈundəvei̯nt] noueinçe [nu.ˈei̯ns]
100: chint
1 000: þusund [ˈθusund], mil (preferred with year numbers)
1 000 000: miglhiun
1 000 000 000: miglhard, þusund [ˈθusund] miglhiun
1 000 000 000 000: biglhiun
1 000 000 000 000 000: biglhard
1 000 000 000 000 000 000: triglhiun
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: triglhard
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: quatriglhiun
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: quatriglhard
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: quintiglhiun
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: quintiglhard
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: sexiglhiun
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000: sexiglhard …

Ordinal numbers

Ordinals are formed by adding -laiset to the numeral (exception: viens > pirmalaiset). That ending’s abbreviation is -l:t or -:t. Alternate forms for ordinals are as follows:

units teens tens
0 nuléu, -éă bisquintéu, -éă ---
1 prüm(ă) ündeschéu, -éă
2 secund dudeschéu, -éă vaintschéu/veintéu, -éă
3 tierçéu, -éă treideschéu, -éă treinçéu, -éă
4 quartéu, -éă tordeschéu, -éă qareinçéu, -éă
5 quintéu, -eă quinteschéu, -éă simeinçéu, -éă
6 sextéu, -éă sedeschéu, -éă sexeinçéu, -éă
7 seiftéu, -éă [sai̯f…] seifdeschéu, -éă [sai̯f…] seifeinçéu, -éă [sai̯f…]
8 vuitéu, -éă [vu̯i…] vuideschéu, -éă [vu̯i…] vuieinçéu, -éă [vu̯i…]
9 nonéu, -éă undaveintéu, -éă noueinçéu, -éă

Alternate forms for bigger values are formed by adding -éu / -éă directly to the stem.

These forms are abbreviated by the numeral followed by the last consonant of the stem (unless it is sch) and the -éu / -éă ending (sextéu > 6:téu, treideschéu > 13:éu, simeinçéu > 50:çéu), Irregular abbreviations are prüm(ă) > 1:m(ă) and secund > 2:nd.

Usage

<TBD>

Dates and times

<TBD>

Lexicon and word derivation

Affixation

It is highly recommended to use regular derivations instead of irregular ones (cunsistar, cunsistent, cunsistençù, incunsistençù instead of qomsistar, cunsistent, qomsistençù / cunvegnhençă, ziscunvenençă; ilegal instead of illegal; etc). This recommendation notwithstanding, irregularly derived words are still considered correct.

Prefixes

anti-: against, opposed to
artsch-: arch, of eminent degree
autu-: auto, self
circüm-: around
cis-: on this side of
contr(a)-: contrary, parallel but opposed
crüpto-: secret
cun-: co-, con-, with (cu- before L, M, N, R; cum- before B, P)
ex-: former, ex
extr(a)-: outside
in-: negation, un-, in-, ir- (i- before L, M, N, R; im- before B, P)
inter-: inter
itra-: intra
mäcro-: large, huge
meta-: beyond, meta-
micro-: tiny, microscopic
mis-: poor quality, erroneous, or wrong action
muti-: multi-, many
noveu-: new, neo-
osprei-: after, post-
pan-: all, pan-
per-: for, pro-
prai-: pre-, ante-, before
psëud(u)-: pseudo
quasi-: somewhat, quasi-
re-: again, anew, re- (ri- before vowels)
retro-: backwards, rear, inverse direction
sanc-: -less, without
sub-: below
super-: above, super
tele-: far, electronic communication
þüper-: excessive, hyper
þüpo-: insufficient, hypo
trans-: across, on the other side of
ultra-: ultra-, beyond, extreme
vice-: vice, assistant, subordinate
zemi-: half, semi, partly
zes-: separation, removal
zis-: complete opposite

Suffixes

Suffixes that begin with a consonant are affixed directly, while suffixes that with a vowel are affixed to the stem:

  • If the word ends in a consonant or -éu, the full word is the stem.
  • Words ending in a stressed vowel, the stem is formed by adding an -n.
  • If the word ends in an unstressed vowel or falling diphthong, the stem is formed by removing it. In case of rising diphthongs, the first segment is kept.
  • If the word ends in -ïu, the stem is formed by replacing that ending with -iv.
  • The stem of a numeral is the corresponding alternative ordinal without the -éu ending (e.g. simca > quint-).
  • Verb stems are formed as described in section 5.4.1.
-ă: resulting object or resulting action (from verbs)
-adă: product made from; an ongoing action; a stroke or thrust, usually with a cutting or pointed instrument; also the wound left by such a blow; quantity that fills something; quantity determined by the nature of the action
-adeireu: place
-adoiră: machine
-aglhă: group or pile with sense of disorder or ill
-amaintsch: verbal noun expressing or characterised by a single action of the verb
-arac’h: naturally occurring group
-ard: bad person
-arieu: place where a thing is kept; recipient of a transaction (-ee); book, bound collection, printed matter
-atïu: -(at)ive, inclination to, capacity for
-atréu: -in-law (feminine -atréă)
-atréu: having same or similar qualities or appearance
-atsch: bad person, animal, or thing
-atx: object or thing made from or having the quality of; collection, set, with a sense of order
-aval: ability
-aziun: verbal noun of action
-buerg: town, city of, -burg
-cadă: series, row, line
-destreçă: skill
-eir: doer of an action
-ell: young animal
-erïă: business or place of business; goods sold
-erïe: feature of character
-esc: -ish, -like, -esque
-eschar: forms a verb meaning beginning, becoming
-escu: patronymic, son of, -son
-et: small, diminutive (feminine -etă)
-iă: region or place of
-içar: -ize, to make into, transform, render
-ificar: -ify, to cover, supply, or furnish with
-iform: shaped like
-ismeu: -ism, ideology, system
-istà: -ist, partisan or professional
-ità: abstract quality, -ity, -ness
-itis: -itis, inflammation, disease
-ófil: one characterised by -ofilia
-ofiliă: love or interest, often excessive
-ofob: one who fears or hates
-ofobia: fear, hatred
-oiră: article that contains
-olateir: one who worships
-olatriă: worship
-omaniă: insane excitement, madness
-omániäc: one suffering from an -omania
-onçă: abstract quality characterised by an action
-ös: full of, rich in, characterised by, -ous
-osis: disease, disorder
-otecă: place where things are collected and stored
-otic: diseased by an -ósis
-p(h)äts: domain, realm, country
-sqåb: office, legal duties
-üc: charming and small
-üt: -ite, follower or descendant; characterisation by a physical feature
-värts: toward

Numerical suffixes

-aină: collective noun
-et: group of people (feminine -etă)
-föld: -fold
-plet: number of siblings
-plicar: multiplication

Compounding

<TBD>

Toponyms and ethnonyms

<TBD>

Sentence structure and forms of use

Allomorphy

Elisions with prepositions

  • The words à, c’e [ʧe], come, contra, da, intra, ja and per must elide with the indefinite singular articles (see 2.2.). Furthermore, the third person singular past form of verbs can optionally elide with indefinite singular articles (see 5.1., footnote 4).
  • The preposition à becomes àð before a vowel. It elides with acest, această, acestilor [aˈʧeʃʧələr], aicì and dove to à’cest, à’ceastă, à’cestilor [aˈʧeʃʧələr], à’icì and aduve respectively. It must elide with the definite singular articles (see 2.1.).
  • The word come becomes com’ before a vowel.
  • The preposition da becomes either d’ or dað before a vowel. It elides with dove to daduve. It must elide with the definite singular articles (see 2.1.).
  • osprei elides with eia to ospr’eia.

Elisions with interrogatives and relatives

  • dove elides with (tu) isch and (o [u] / a / ça) isch to dovestás and dovestà respectively. It becomes dov’ before a vowel.
  • The pronouns qet and qi elide with isch to qet’st and qi’st respectively.

Miscellaneous allomorphies

  • acest can elide with isch to c’e [ʧe] on an optional basis. Similarly, it can optionally become c’ [ʧ] before other forms of the verb estar that start with ‹e›.
  • The articles el and la become l’ before a vowel unless the noun they precede denotes a letter of the alphabet (see 2.1.).
  • hi [i] elides with isch and sint to ja and j’ont respectively.
  • ja must elide with the indefinite singular articles (see 2.2.).
  • The noun ma becomes mha when preceded by the feminine singular definite article or a preposition ending in a vowel.
  • The pronouns me, te, lo [lu], la and se become m’, t’, l’, l’, and s’ respectively when preceding a verb beginning with a vowel (see 4.1.).
  • The conjunction qe becomes q’ before a vowel.
  • The possessive determiner va becomes v’ before a vowel (see 4.2.), though this rule can optionally be disreguarded for purposes of emphasis.
  • In inverted word order, verb ending may elide with personal pronouns (see 5.3.).

Affirmative sentences

Default word order for affirmative sentences is Subject–Verb–Object.

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch.

OBJECT

L’aprendeir lira el cudesch.

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“The learner reads the book.”

If the subject is éu, it is common, though not obligatory, to leave it out. This does not apply to other personal pronouns.

Éu

SUBJECT

liréu

VERB

el cudesch.

OBJECT

Éu liréu el cudesch.

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“I read the book.”

Liréu

VERB

el cudesch.

OBJECT

Liréu el cudesch.

VERB OBJECT

“I read the book.”

If the object is a personal pronoun, the word order becomes Subject–Object–Verb.

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

en

OBJECT

lira.

VERB

L’aprendeir en lira.

SUBJECT OBJECT VERB

“The learner reads it.”

If the object is a personal pronoun but the verb consists of two parts with no preposition between them, it must be placed before the first verb. If the second verb is in the infinitive form, the pronoun can instead be placed before the second verb or attached to it with a hyphen, though placing a pronoun inbetween two verbs is most often avoided in prose.

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

en

OBJECT

tent

VERB

lirat.

VERB

L’aprendeir en tent lirat.

SUBJECT OBJECT VERB VERB

“The learner has read it.”

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

en

OBJECT

volt

VERB

lirar.

VERB

L’aprendeir en volt lirar.

SUBJECT OBJECT VERB VERB

“The learner wants to read it.”

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

volt

VERB

en

OBJECT

lirar.

VERB

L’aprendeir volt en lirar.

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT VERB

“The learner wants to read it.” (rare in prose)

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

volt

VERB

lirar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

L’aprendeir volt lirar-EN.

SUBJECT VERB VERB-OBJECT

“The learner wants to read it.”

As a special case, if the verb consists of two parts that are connected with the prepositions à or da, the object must be placed either before the first verb or attached to the second with a hyphen.

Si

SUBJECT

en

OBJECT

haßa

VERB

à

PREPOSITION

vidar.

VERB

Si en haßa à vidar.

SUBJECT OBJECT VERB PREPOSITION VERB

“You hate to see it.”

Si

SUBJECT

haßa

VERB

à

PREPOSITION

vidar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

Si haßa à vidar-en.

SUBJECT VERB PREPOSITION VERB-OBJECT

“You hate to see it.”

In quote tags as well as interjections involving a verb of saying, feeling, thinking etc., Subject and Verb are inversed.

«Ça sint inverçats»,

[QUOTE]

scriveva

VERB

l’auþor.

SUBJECT

«Ça sint inverçats», scriveva l’auþor.

[QUOTE] VERB SUBJECT

“«They are inversed», wrote the author.”

El cudesch isch,

[SENTENCE]

pens’éu,

VERB-SUBJECT

‘n po eißuc’h.

[SENTENCE]

El cudesch isch, pens’éu, ‘n po eißuc’h.

[SENTENCE] VERB-SUBJECT [SENTENCE]

“The book is, I think, a bit dry.”

In sentences with a time indication, the time indication can be placed first in the sentence on an optional basis. In that case, Subject and Verb (together with the object if it is a personal pronoun) are inversed.

Demà

TIME

lirarha

VERB

l’aprendeir

SUBJECT

el cudesch.

OBJECT

Demà lirarha l’aprendeir el cudesch.

TIME VERB SUBJECT OBJECT

“Tomorrow the learner will read the book.”

Demà

TIME

en

OBJECT

lirarha

VERB

l’aprendeir.

SUBJECT

Demà en lirarha l’aprendeir.

TIME OBJECT VERB SUBJECT

“Tomorrow the learner will read it.”

The Talossan equivalent of “there is” and “there are” are ja and j’ont respectively. They come first in the sentence, followed by the subject.

Ja’iens

VERB

cudesch.

SUBJECT

Ja’iens cudesch.

VERB SUBJECT

“There is a book.”

J’ont

VERB

dels cudeschen.

SUBJECT

J’ont dels cudeschen.

VERB SUBJECT

“There are books.”

In tenses other than the present, hi [i] followed by the verb estar is used, analogously to English.

Hi

ADVERB

estev’iens

VERB

cudesch.

SUBJECT

Hi estev’iens cudesch.

ADVERB VERB SUBJECT

“There was a book.”

Hi

ADVERB

serà

VERB

ün cudesch.

SUBJECT

Hi serà ün cudesch.

ADVERB VERB SUBJECT

“There will be a book.”

Interrogative sentences

There are three ways of forming yes-no questions out of affirmative ones, ordered from least to most marked:

  • through Subject–Verb inversion,

¿Lira

VERB

l’aprendeir

SUBJECT

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿Lira l’aprendeir el cudesch?

VERB SUBJECT OBJECT

“Does the learner read the book?”

¿En

OBJECT

lira

VERB

l’aprendeir?

SUBJECT

¿En lira l’aprendeir?

OBJECT VERB SUBJECT

“Does the learner read it?”

  • through the interrogative particles e-ça qe [ˈeskjə], n’estás-c’e [nesˈtasə], non c’e vräts and oi, whereas the sentence syntax per se stays intact,

¿E-ça qe

PARTICLE

l’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿E-ça qe l’aprendeir lira el cudesch?

PARTICLE SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“Is it that the learner reads the book?”

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch,

OBJECT

¿n’estás-c’e?

PARTICLE

L’aprendeir lira el cudesch, ¿n’estás-c’e?

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT PARTICLE

“The learner reads the book, doesn’t he?”

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch,

OBJECT

¿non c’e vräts?

PARTICLE

L’aprendeir lira el cudesch, ¿non c’e vräts?

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT PARTICLE

“The learner reads the book, isn’t that right?”

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch,

OBJECT

¿oi?

PARTICLE

L’aprendeir lira el cudesch, ¿oi?

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT PARTICLE

“The learner reads the book, yeah?”

  • and through raising intonation alone.

¿L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿L’aprendeir lira el cudesch?

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“The learner reads the book?”

Out of these three, inversion questions are the most neutral. Particle questions are rare, and intonation questions, similar to their English counterparts, carry a sense of doubt, surprise or incredulity. E-ça qe [ˈeskjə] is preferred for sentences that contain the special verbs ja and j’ont as inversion is impossible.

Ja’iens

VERB

cudesch.

SUBJECT

Ja’iens cudesch.

VERB SUBJECT

“There is a book.”

¿E-ça qe

PARTICLE

ja’iens

VERB

cudesch?

SUBJECT

¿E-ça qe ja’iens cudesch?

PARTICLE VERB SUBJECT

“Is there a book?” (lit. “Is it that there is a book?”)

Content questions require an interrogative pronoun (qi, qet or qissen) or adverb which comes first in the sentence. Interrogative pronouns are accompanied by subject–verb inversion. With interrogative adverbs, one can choose between subject–verb inversion and using the particle e-ça qe [ˈeskjə] which then comes second in the sentence.

¿Qi

PRONOUN

lira

VERB

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿Qi lira el cudesch?

PRONOUN VERB OBJECT

“Who reads the book?”

¿Qet

PRONOUN

lira

VERB

l’aprendeir?

SUBJECT

¿Qet lira l’aprendeir?

PRONOUN VERB SUBJECT

“What does the learner read?”

¿Qissen

PRONOUN

cudesch

OBJECT

isch-ça?

VERB-SUBJECT

¿Qissen cudesch isch-ça?

PRONOUN OBJECT VERB-SUBJECT

“Whose book is it?”

¿Perqet

ADVERB

lira

VERB

l’aprendeir

SUBJECT

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿Perqet lira l’aprendeir el cudesch?

ADVERB VERB SUBJECT OBJECT

“Why does the learner read the book?”

¿Perqet

ADVERB

e-ça qe

PARTICLE

l’aprendeir

SUBJECT

lira

VERB

el cudesch?

OBJECT

¿Perqet e-ça qe l’aprendeir lira el cudesch?

ADVERB PARTICLE SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“Why is it that the learner reads the book?”

Imperative sentences

The default word order in imperative sentences is Verb–Subject–Object. The subject is either tu or voi and must be attached to the verb with a hyphen. Having it is always optional.

¡Liretz-tu

VERB-SUBJECT

el cudesch!

OBJECT

¡Liretz-tu el cudesch!

VERB-SUBJECT OBJECT

“Read the book!” (directed at one person)

¡Liretz-voi

VERB-SUBJECT

el cudesch!

OBJECT

¡Liretz-voi el cudesch!

VERB-SUBJECT OBJECT

“Read the book!” (directed at a group)

¡Liretz

VERB

el cudesch!

OBJECT

¡Liretz el cudesch!

VERB OBJECT

“Read the book!”

If the object is a personal pronoun, it comes before the verb. If the subject is left out, it is preferred to attach the object to the verb with a hyphen.

¡En

OBJECT

liretz-tu!

VERB-SUBJECT

¡En liretz-tu!

OBJECT VERB-SUBJECT

“Read it!” (directed at one person)

¡Liretz-en!

VERB-OBJECT

¡Liretz-en!

VERB-OBJECT

“Read it!”

If the subject of the imperative sentence is neither tu nor voi, a completely different sentence structure is employed, which is effectively that of affirmative sentences except that the word qe comes first in the sentence and the verb must be in the subjunctive. All inversion rules for affirmative sentences apply.

Noi

SUBJECT

lirent

VERB

dels cudeschen.

OBJECT

Noi lirent dels cudeschen.

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“We read books.”

¡Qe

CONJUNCTION

noi

SUBJECT

liradrent

VERB

dels cudeschen!

OBJECT

¡Qe noi liradrent dels cudeschen!

CONJUNCTION SUBJECT VERB OBJECT

“Let’s read books!” (lit. “That we may read books!”)

Negation

In order to negate a sentence, non is placed before the verb. If the verb and object are inversed, it is placed before the object instead.

L’aprendeir

SUBJECT

non

NEGATION

lira

VERB

el cudesch.

OBJECT

L’aprendeir non lira el cudesch.

SUBJECT NEGATION VERB OBJECT

“The learner doesn’t read the book.”

¿Perqet

SUBJECT

non

NEGATION

en

OBJECT

lira-t-o?

VERB-SUBJECT

¿Perqet non en lira-t-o?

ADVERB NEGATION OBJECT VERB-SUBJECT

“Why doesn’t he read it?”

¡Non

NEGATION

liretz-en!

VERB-OBJECT

¡Non liretz-en!

NEGATION VERB-OBJECT

“Don’t read it!”

Multiple negations in the sentence do not cancel each other out but rather amplify each other. In fact, it is preferred to have as many negations in the sentence as possible.

L’egoistà

SUBJECT

non

NEGATION

partetxarha

VERB

níþil

OBJECT[NEG]

cün neviens.

PREP[NEG]

L’egoistà non partetxarha níþil cün neviens.

SUBJECT NEGATION VERB OBJECT[NEG] PREP[NEG]

“The selfish one won’t share anything with anyone.”

When there are multiple verbs in the sentence, the position of the word non can change the meaning of the sentence. In general, non negates the verb it precedes.

Tu

SUBJECT

non

NEGATION

fost

VERB

lirar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

Tu non fost lirar-en.

SUBJECT NEGATION VERB VERB-OBJECT

“You don’t have to read it.” (lit. “You not must read it”)

Tu

SUBJECT

fost

VERB

non

NEGATION

lirar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

Tu fost non lirar-en.

SUBJECT VERB NEGATION VERB-OBJECT

“You mustn’t read it.” (lit. “You must not read it”)

In a special case, if the two verbs are connected with à, the second verb is negated by changing the preposition to da.

Si

SUBJECT

non

NEGATION

haßa

VERB

à

PREPOSITION

vidar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

Si non haßa à vidar-en.

SUBJECT NEGATION VERB PREPOSITION VERB-OBJECT

“You don’t hate to see it.”

Si

SUBJECT

haßa

VERB

da

PREPOSITION[NEG]

vidar-en.

VERB-OBJECT

Si haßa da vidar-en.

SUBJECT VERB PREPOSITION[NEG] VERB-OBJECT

“You hate to not see it.” (lit. “You hate from seeing it.”)

Answering yes-no questions

The Talossan equivalents of “yes” and “no” when answering a positive yes-no question are üc and non respectively.

¿Lira-t-o el cudesch? “Does he read the book?”
Üc, o en lira. “Yes, he reads it.”
Non, o non en lira. “No, he doesn’t read it.”

When answering a negative yes-no question however, the Talossan equivalent of “yes[, on the contrary]” is schi instead.

¿Non lira-t-o el cudesch? “Doesn’t he read the book?”
Schi, o en lira. “Yes, he reads it.”
Non, o non en lira. “No, he doesn’t read it.”

Relative clauses

The pronoun qi is used to introduce relative clauses pertaining to persons. Unlike English, which has a vestigial who/whom distinction, qi can be either subject, object or part of a prepositional phrase.

L’aprendeir, qi lira el cudesch “The learner who reads the book”
L’aprendeir, qi éu videveu “The learner whom I saw”
L’aprendeir, à qi éu scriveveu “The learner to whom I wrote”

Relative clauses pertaining to inanimates use qi when it is the subject of the clause, qe when it is the object and qet when it is used in a prepositional phrase.

El cudesch, qi en explicta “The book which explains it”
El cudesch, qe l’aprendeir lira “The book which the learner reads”
El cudesch, da qet quotéu “The book from which I quote”

Possessives are introduced with qissen, which is invariable.

L’aprendeir, qissen cudesch isch ‘n po eißuc’h “The learner whose book is a bit dry”

Interrogative pronouns and adverbs can be used to link two sentences together, just like in English.

Éu non säp, qet paßa. “I don’t know what’s going on.”
¿Säps-tu, quand la leitüră comença? “Do you know when the lecture comença?

The Talossan equivalent to English “which” used to link two sentences together is qet.

O amineva sieu traval, qet l’ancumbreva. “He procrastinated his work, which frustrated her.”

The construction “he/she/etc. who” is expressed as either qi qi, which is gender-neutral, or el/la qi depending on gender. The plural form is always els/las qi and thus gender-dependent.

Qi qi non rischcia, non gagnha. “Nothing ventured, nothing gained” (lit. “He/she/etc. who doesn’t venture doesn’t win.”)
El qi’st sanc pec starp voi, q’o xhetadra el prüm cräps àð eia. “He who is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone at her.”