Difference between revisions of "Senäts"

From TalossaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
 
Line 6: Line 6:
 
| style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | ''Upper house of the Ziu''
 
| style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | ''Upper house of the Ziu''
 
|-
 
|-
| style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | [[Senate for the 52nd Cosa]]
+
| style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | [[Senate for the 53rd Cosa]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | <hr>'''Leadership and operation'''
 
! style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | <hr>'''Leadership and operation'''
Line 18: Line 18:
 
| '''Seats''' || 8
 
| '''Seats''' || 8
 
|-
 
|-
| style="vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="10" | '''Senators''' || '''HM's Government'''
+
| style="vertical-align:middle;" rowspan="11" | '''Senators''' || '''HM's Government'''
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Sevastáin Pinátsch]] (KA-MRPT)
+
| [[Sevastáin Pinátsch]] (KA-IND)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Lüc da Schir]] (BE-MRPT)
+
| [[Gödafrïeu Válcadác'h]] (FV-FreeDems)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Alèxandreu Soleighlfred]] (CZ-MRPT)
+
| [[Viteu Marcianüs]] (VD-FreeDems)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Gödafrïeu Válcadác'h]] (FV-FreeDems)
+
| <hr>'''Confidence and Supply'''
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lüc da Schir]] (BE-IND)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Ian Plätschisch]] (MM-MRPT)
+
| [[Ian Plätschisch]] (MM-AMP)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <hr>'''HM's Loyal Opposition'''
 
| <hr>'''HM's Loyal Opposition'''
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Quedeir Castiglha|The Lord Castiglha]] (FL-RUMP)
+
| [[Thor Deyaert]] (CZ-IND)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Cresti Siervicül]] (MA-RUMP)
+
| [[Ieremiac'h Ventrutx]] (FL-RUMP)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Trotxâ Betiñéir]] (VD-RUMP)<!--
+
| [[Cresti Siervicül]] (MA-RUMP)<!--
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <hr>''One vacant seat''-->
 
| <hr>''One vacant seat''-->
Line 46: Line 48:
 
| '''Voting system''' || Instant Runoff Voting<br/>(when conducted by the Chancery)
 
| '''Voting system''' || Instant Runoff Voting<br/>(when conducted by the Chancery)
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Last elections''' || [[July 2018 General Election#Senatorial races|June 15 - July 1 2018]]
+
| '''Last elections''' || [[April 2019 General Election#Senatorial races|March 15 - April 1 2019]]
 
|-
 
|-
| '''Next elections''' || about March or April 2019
+
| '''Next elections''' || around January 2020
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | <hr>'''Meeting place'''
 
! style="text-align: center;" colspan="2" | <hr>'''Meeting place'''
Line 95: Line 97:
 
The Senate mantains a body of [[Standing Rules of the Senate|Standing Rules]] governing its operation; to propose additions and amendments to the rules, a Senate Committee on Rules and Administration is estabilished by law and composed of three Senators. The Mençei is by right the chairman of the Committee, even if not a full member, although in practice operation of the committee is left to common consensus.
 
The Senate mantains a body of [[Standing Rules of the Senate|Standing Rules]] governing its operation; to propose additions and amendments to the rules, a Senate Committee on Rules and Administration is estabilished by law and composed of three Senators. The Mençei is by right the chairman of the Committee, even if not a full member, although in practice operation of the committee is left to common consensus.
  
The current members of the Rules Committee are senators Valcadac'h, da Schir and Siervicül.
+
The most recent members of the Rules Committee are senators Valcadac'h, da Schir and Siervicül.
  
 
=== Tenure ===
 
=== Tenure ===
Line 103: Line 105:
 
! colspan=2|Senator !! Took office
 
! colspan=2|Senator !! Took office
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#126ECC" style="width=10px;" | || L. da Schir || 1 Oct 2014
+
| bgcolor="#999999" style="width=10px;" | || L. da Schir || 1 Oct 2014
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#126ECC" style="width=10px;" | || S. Pinátsch || 1 Jul 2015
+
| bgcolor="#999999" style="width=10px;" | || S. Pinátsch || 1 Jul 2015
 
|-
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#ff3300" style="width=10px;" | || G. Valcadac'h || 1 Feb 2017
 
| bgcolor="#ff3300" style="width=10px;" | || G. Valcadac'h || 1 Feb 2017
Line 111: Line 113:
 
| bgcolor="#009900" style="width=10px;" | || C. Siervicül || 23 Oct 2017
 
| bgcolor="#009900" style="width=10px;" | || C. Siervicül || 23 Oct 2017
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#009900" style="width=10px;" | || T. Betiñeir || 12 Feb 2018
+
| bgcolor="#ffcc00" style="width=10px;" | || I. Plätschisch || 27 Apr 2018
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#126ECC" style="width=10px;" | || I. Plätschisch || 27 Apr 2018
+
| bgcolor="#009900" style="width=10px;" | || I. Ventrutx || 15 Apr 2019
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#126ECC" style="width=10px;" | || A. Soleiglhfred || 1 Aug 2018
+
| bgcolor="#ff3300" style="width=10px;" | || V. Marcianüs || 15 Apr 2019
 
|-
 
|-
| bgcolor="#009900" style="width=10px;" | || Q. Castiglha || 18 Jan 2019
+
| bgcolor="#999999" style="width=10px;" | || T. Deyaert || 15 Apr 2019
 
|}
 
|}
  
The Senator for Benito, Lüc da Schir, is the current longest tenured Senator, having served since October 2014. He is holding the title alone since the sixth Clark of the 51st Cosa; previously, he and former Senator Magniloqueu da Lhiun were the joint longest tenured Senators, and before the resignations of Vuode Senator Eovart Grischun, the three held the distinction concurrently.
+
The Senator for Benito, Lüc da Schir, is the current longest tenured Senator (Dean of the Senate), having served since October 2014. He is holding the title alone since the sixth Clark of the 51st Cosa; previously, he and former Senator Magniloqueu da Lhiun were the joint longest tenured Senators, and before the resignations of Vuode Senator Eovart Grischun, the three held the distinction concurrently.
  
 
During the 50th Cosa, Senator Tresplet had the longest tenure, joined by Senator d'Auribuerg during the 48th and 49th; and from the 41st to the 47th Cosas, corresponding to approximately five years, the title was held by Senator Holmes of Atatürk, who still is the senator with the largest number of Cosas served.
 
During the 50th Cosa, Senator Tresplet had the longest tenure, joined by Senator d'Auribuerg during the 48th and 49th; and from the 41st to the 47th Cosas, corresponding to approximately five years, the title was held by Senator Holmes of Atatürk, who still is the senator with the largest number of Cosas served.
Line 126: Line 128:
 
== Current Senate ==
 
== Current Senate ==
  
{{:Senate for the 52nd Cosa}}
+
{{:Senate for the 53rd Cosa}}
  
 
== Election cycle ==
 
== Election cycle ==
Line 134: Line 136:
 
!Cosa
 
!Cosa
 
!Senate Seat Contested
 
!Senate Seat Contested
|-
 
|53||Vuode, Atatürk, Cézembre
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|54||Florencia, Maricopa, Fiova
 
|54||Florencia, Maricopa, Fiova
Line 150: Line 150:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|60||Fiova, Maritiimi-Maxhestic, Benito
 
|60||Fiova, Maritiimi-Maxhestic, Benito
 +
|-
 +
|61||Vuode, Atatürk, Cézembre
 
|}
 
|}
 
(The Election Cycle Then Repeats)
 
(The Election Cycle Then Repeats)
  
 
{{navsenate}}
 
{{navsenate}}

Latest revision as of 11:08, 2 May 2019

Senate
Senats.png
Upper house of the Ziu
Senate for the 53rd Cosa

Leadership and operation
Mençei dal Senäts (Lord President) Lüc da Schir
Standing Rules of the Senate

Structure
Seats 8
Senators HM's Government
Sevastáin Pinátsch (KA-IND)
Gödafrïeu Válcadác'h (FV-FreeDems)
Viteu Marcianüs (VD-FreeDems)

Confidence and Supply
Lüc da Schir (BE-IND)
Ian Plätschisch (MM-AMP)

HM's Loyal Opposition
Thor Deyaert (CZ-IND)
Ieremiac'h Ventrutx (FL-RUMP)
Cresti Siervicül (MA-RUMP)
Length of term Staggered, variable
(typically 16 to 24 months)

Elections
Voting system Instant Runoff Voting
(when conducted by the Chancery)
Last elections March 15 - April 1 2019
Next elections around January 2020

Meeting place
Senate greenehall ext.jpg
Online, cerimonially Greene Hall, Abbavilla

The Senäts ([sɛˈnæt͡s] ( )), or Senate, is the upper house of the Talossan legislature, the Ziu. Like the Cosa, it meets in Abbavilla; its meeting place is Greene Hall, while the offices are located in the neighboring Johnston Hall.

Each province is represented by one Senator, so the Senate is composed by eight seats.

History

The Senate was created by the 1997 Organic Law. Before the promulgation of that document, the Ziu consisted only of a single house (now termed the "lower house"), the Cosa. Therefore, the first Senate was the Senate for the 23rd Cosa. The first (and so far only) change in the number of Senators was in 2012, when a seat was added to represent Fiôvâ following Reunision.

Ever since changes ratified after the 35th Cosa, the King has been Organically barred from holding a place in the Senate, and indeed from entering the Senate chamber unless summoned there to provide testimony to a Senate commission. The consort of the King, and any regent during his or her regency also is forbidden from holding a seat in the Senate; this most recently happened in the 52nd Cosa as Ma la Mha surrendered his seat for the First Clark to serve as Regent to King John.

Furthermore, no Senator may hold seats in the Cosa.

Role

The powers of the Senate are equal to those of the Cosa, except that no bill appropriating revenue may have a Senator as its primary sponsor, and the Senate does not participate in the Vote of Confidence in the government; this means that the Senate is typically less partisan than the lower house. Even though the Government does not require to mantain the Confidence of the Senate, there have historically been only a few times when the Senate has not been controlled by the Government.

The approval of a majority of the Senate to all legislation is required before royal assent can be sought. The number of seats being very small means that ties are relatively more likely than in the Cosa; however, no tiebreaker exists. In the case of bills recommending referenda for the ratification of Organic amendments affecting those articles concerning the Senate itself, the process of amending Organic Law, or the territorial subdivisions of the Kingdom, a super-majority of two-thirds vote in the Senate is required.

The Senate also may pass resolutions without involvement of the Cosa, to commemorate events, create Senatorial commissions or honours, or grant those honours to specific persons. Two typical "Resolutions of the Senate" (RS) are the recommendation of a Chancellor of the Royal Talossan Bar to the King, and the awarding of the Senatorial Medal of Honour.

Members and elections

The Senate is composed by one seat for each province, and so for the first fifteen years of existence it counted seven Senators; an eight member being added in 2012 to account for the creation of the new province of Fiova.

The electoral procedure in the Senate has varied markedly over the years; provinces can now choose to conduct their own Senatorial elections, and each province can effectively decide the electoral law for its own seat. Provinces who have conducted their own Senatorial elections include Cézembre, Fiôvâ and Maritiimi-Maxhestic. However, the national Chancery still conducts most of the races; by law, it is now obliged to do so by Instant Runoff Vote. Previously, Senatorial races were all conducted by the Chancery using First Past the Post.

Senatorial terms are staggered so that a third of the Senate is up for reelection at every election cycle, in a similar arrangement to the United States. However, an important distinction is that the Talossan Senate seats are not divided into classes: while in the United States the seats have been divided into three groups of 33, 33 and 34, where each class is always up for reelection at the same time, the Talossan Senate simply picks the next three seats from a fixed rotation order, meaning that each seat will have one every three terms shortened by a full Cosa.

Another important distinction between the Senate and its American relative is that the terms are pegged to the Cosa's own: an early dissolution would mean that each Senatorial term is shortened respective to its theoretical length, while a month of Recess or any other unexpected delay, such as the month-long one that occurred before the elections to the 49th Cosa, would conversely lengthen a Senator's term in office. However, since Cosa cycles typically last nine months (two months for elections and formation, six Clarks and one month of recess), each province elects its Senator for cyclical terms of 18, 27 and 27 months.

There are no provisions for Senators to be recalled; however, the Senate can adopt motions of censure against its members, and can impeach a Senator by supermajority. In the latter case, the home province shall hold a ballot to remove the Senator by majority vote. In addition, Senators may lose their seat by resignation, failure to vote or death. In any case, each province's government is empowered to appoint an interim Senator to complete the former Senator's term, until the next available General Elections. If at that point the former Senator's term would have expired anyway, a regular election is held; otherwise, a special election is held for the remainder of the unexpired term.

Special elections mean that the number of seats up for reelection can be higher than three; in the July 2018 General Election, a record six seats (75% of the Senate) were up for reelection due to the resignations of three Senators and the regular expiration of three terms; one of the latter also fell into the former category (the M-M race), but as the term would have expired nonetheless a special election was not held.

Officers

The Senate is led by the Lord President, or Mençei, elected by the Senate from among its own members at the beginning of each term. The Mençei's powers are generally greater than those of the Cosa counterpart, the Tuischac'h, as he conducts debates on the monthly business and is more involved in the day to day operation of the Senate, while the Tuischac'h's official duties outside of Living Cosas are restricted to advising members of proper decorum and directing Terpelaziuns.

Rules Committee

The Senate mantains a body of Standing Rules governing its operation; to propose additions and amendments to the rules, a Senate Committee on Rules and Administration is estabilished by law and composed of three Senators. The Mençei is by right the chairman of the Committee, even if not a full member, although in practice operation of the committee is left to common consensus.

The most recent members of the Rules Committee are senators Valcadac'h, da Schir and Siervicül.

Tenure

Senators by tenure
Senator Took office
L. da Schir 1 Oct 2014
S. Pinátsch 1 Jul 2015
G. Valcadac'h 1 Feb 2017
C. Siervicül 23 Oct 2017
I. Plätschisch 27 Apr 2018
I. Ventrutx 15 Apr 2019
V. Marcianüs 15 Apr 2019
T. Deyaert 15 Apr 2019

The Senator for Benito, Lüc da Schir, is the current longest tenured Senator (Dean of the Senate), having served since October 2014. He is holding the title alone since the sixth Clark of the 51st Cosa; previously, he and former Senator Magniloqueu da Lhiun were the joint longest tenured Senators, and before the resignations of Vuode Senator Eovart Grischun, the three held the distinction concurrently.

During the 50th Cosa, Senator Tresplet had the longest tenure, joined by Senator d'Auribuerg during the 48th and 49th; and from the 41st to the 47th Cosas, corresponding to approximately five years, the title was held by Senator Holmes of Atatürk, who still is the senator with the largest number of Cosas served.

Current Senate

Senate for the 53rd Cosa

Election cycle

As reflected by the table below, at each general election, three Senators (out of the eight) are elected. This means that the term of office for each Senate seat is three Cosa-elections two times and two-Cosa-elections the third, repeating. That’s more-or-less 16 or 24 months to each Senatorial term. However, a Senator’s term may be shortened by early dissolutions of the Cosa or lengthened by no-business months inserted between Clarks [For full details, see the Organic Law Article IV: Election to the Senäts and Article V: Composition of the Senäts].

Cosa Senate Seat Contested
54 Florencia, Maricopa, Fiova
55 Maritiimi-Maxhestic, Benito, Vuode
56 Atatürk, Cézembre, Florencia
57 Maricopa, Fiova, Maritiimi-Maxhestic
58 Benito, Vuode, Atatürk
59 Cézembre, Florencia, Maricopa
60 Fiova, Maritiimi-Maxhestic, Benito
61 Vuode, Atatürk, Cézembre

(The Election Cycle Then Repeats)